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Alleviating Search Bias in Evolutionary Bayesian Optimization with Many Heterogeneous Objectives

Xilu Wang, Yaochu Jin, Sebastian Schmitt, Markus Olhofer, "Alleviating Search Bias in Evolutionary Bayesian Optimization with Many Heterogeneous Objectives", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 143-155, 2024.


Multi-objective optimization problems whose objectives have different evaluation costs are commonly seen in the real world. Such problems are now known as multi-objective optimization problems with heterogeneous objectives (HE-MOPs). So far, however, only a few studies have been reported to address HE-MOPs, and most of them focus on bi-objective problems with one fast objective and one slow objective. In this work, we aim to deal with HE-MOPs having more than two black-box and heterogeneous objectives. To this end, we develop a multi-objective Bayesian optimization approach to HE-MOPs by exploiting the non-uniform data in HE-MOPs to alleviate the search bias caused by the heterogeneous evaluation costs of different objectives. To make the best use of two different training data sets, one with solutions evaluated on all objectives and the other with those only evaluated on the faster objectives, two separate Gaussian process models are constructed. In addition, a new acquisition function that mitigates search biases towards the fast objectives is suggested, thereby achieving a balance between convergence and diversity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by testing it on widely used multi-/many-objective benchmark problems whose objectives are assumed to be heterogeneously expensive.

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